Adult spinal deformity refers to abnormal curvatures of the spine in patients who have completed their growth. Thus they are typically seen in males and females over the age of eighteen. The age range of patients seeking treatment for adult scoliosis and other deformities varies widely, however. It is not unusual for patients who are well into their sixties, seventies or even eighties present with symptoms of pain and functional limitations. With increasing life expectancy along with more active lifestyles, the number of older adults requiring treatment has also gone up. Unlike the younger or adolescent patient with a spinal deformity, the older adult presents with a completely different set of problems and challenges to the treating physician.