Scoliosis can occur as part of many syndromic diseases (both genetic and non-genetic syndromes). Examples include:
- Marfan syndrome
- Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
- Other connective tissue disorders
- Muscular dystrophy
- Osteochondrodystrophy (dwarfism)
- Neurofibromatosis (NF)
- Noonan Syndrome
- VATER/VACTERL Syndrome
- Angelman Syndrome
- Prader Willi
- Osteogenesis Imperfecta
- Trisomy 21 (Down's Syndrome)
Highly variable based on underlying syndrome and size of scoliosis. Usually not painful, but when severe can cause discomfort and/or pain with seating.
When a child is diagnosed with a syndrome known to cause scoliosis, screening for scoliosis will begin fairly early. Examinations of the back, including x-rays, will be performed on a regular basis.
Because the natures of the causal syndromes are so varied, the curves that they cause in the spine progress at varied rates. Close assessment and follow-up with your pediatrician and your spine surgeon will help to manage effects of scoliosis and ensure that intervention is arranged when necessary.